Buda Thermal Karst is an exceptional natural laboratory to study the interaction of geofluid systems influenced by different driving forces such as water table differences and heat convection; and by fluids from meteoric infiltration and saline water of geological formations. Due to the elevated heat flux of the area (up to 100 mW/m2), the temperature of the fluids is influenced by advection and heat convection (Havril et al. 2016; Szijártó et al. 2019). The evolution of geofluid systems is ongoing since the late Miocene, consequently fluid systems have an outstanding effect on mobilization and accumulation of matter and heat. Thermal springs arise at the boundary of confined and unconfined part of the BTK can be handled as “outcrops” of interacting geofluid systems (Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth 2015), since they reveal the complex physical and geochemical processes of the system. At the same time, they accumulate the mobilized and transported matter at the surface in the form of carbonate and biogeochemical precipitates (Dobosy et al. 2016; Kovács-Bodor et al. 2018; Kovács-Bodor et al. 2019). The long term scientific researches of the area revealed the necessity of the approach, to handle fluids of thermal springs and their precipitates, and discharging water and its heat content; radioactivity and trace elements of precipitates and CO2 and 222Rn exhalation from thermal water, in a comprehensive way. This result is part of a project that has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 810980”.
Dobosy, Z Sávoly, M Óvári, J Mádl-Szőnyi, G Záray (2016): Microchemical characterization of biogeochemical samples collected from the Buda Thermal Karst System, Hungary. Microchemical Journal 124, 116-120.
Havril, T., Molson, J.W. and Mádl-Szőnyi, J., (2016): Evolution of ﬂuid ﬂow and heat distribution over geological time scales at the margin of unconﬁned and conﬁned carbonate sequences - A numerical investigation based on the Buda Thermal Karst analogue. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 78, pp. 738-749.
Kovács-Bodor P, Anda D, Jurecska L, Óvári M, Horváth Á, Makk J, Post V, (2018): Integration of In Situ Experiments and Numerical Simulations to Reveal the Physicochemical Circumstances of Organic and Inorganic Precipitation at a Thermal Spring. Aquatic geochemistry 24 (3), 231-255
Kovács-Bodor P, Csondor K, Erőss A, Szieberth D, Freiler-Nagy Á, (2019): Natural radioactivity of thermal springs and related precipitates in Gellért Hill area, Buda Thermal Karst, Hungary. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 201, 32-42.
Mádl-Szőnyi J and Tóth Á (2015): Basin-scale conceptual groundwater flow model for an unconfined and confined thick carbonate region. Hydrogeology Journal 23 (7), 1359-1380
Szijártó, M., Galsa, A., Tóth, Á. and Mádl-Szőnyi, J. (2019): Numerical investigation of the combined effect of forced and free thermal convection in synthetic groundwater basins.