Groundwater management is important for global and local sustainability, which is shown as large groundwater footprints through the global agricultural trade and local environmental problems due to groundwater depletion, as well as climate change impacts on groundwater resources directly and indirectly, and carbon emissions through human activities using groundwater. Groundwater, energy and food are interlinked each other beyond the boundaries of each shed as well as trans-spatially, such as local, national, and global, through the food and energy trades. Interactions between groundwater-food-energy nexus and environmental/ economical/social impacts under the conditions of climate change and urbanization, are analyzed for global and local sustainability, in terms of multi-scale integrated management and governance of the nexus by increasing synergies and reducing trade-offs. Environmental changes and degradations such as air and water pollutions, land subsidence, and others, had been occurred significantly during the Anthropocene, as tradeoff of the economic development, even though the national and local government policies had tried to make synergy of groundwater-energy-food nexus.
To understand the relationships between social/economic developments and environmental change, some analyses have been made with the indices including self -sufficiency as a part of securities, water footprints for food production as nexus interlinkage and others, depending on the different spatial scale as transboundary of inter- and intra- connected nexus. Three databases are made with resources, interlinkage, and scenario in multi-spatial scale including Kyoto city, Kyoto prefecture, Kansai area, and Japan. A nexus model to analyze the change of the nexus structure has been developed, and assessments of the changes in three resources, carbon emission, environmental and economic impacts, are analyzed. Preference of local food production causes the decrease in energy consumption for food transports and carbon emission, on the other hand the increase in water and energy consumption in local area. Tradeoffs were found between economy and environment as well as local and national scale.