As the biggest developing country in the world, China is making a huge effort to carry out karst hydrogeological survey in south China, where the karst area is about 0.78 million square kilometer and the population is about 140 million. The Institute of Karst Geology is the leading agency on hydrogeological surveys and research in China’s karst. Up to now, hydrogeological maps of 1/250,000 cover 0.78 million square kilometer and maps at 1/50,000 span 0.30 million square kilometer in the South China Karst. These works show that total groundwater storage is 169.54 billion cubic meter per year in the South China Karst and the total sustainable yield is 62.18 billion cubic meter per year. At Present, only 14.6% is utilized (9.05 billion cubic meter per year). A huge potential reservoir of karst groundwater is available for use. An outstanding characteristic of karst groundwater systems in the South China Karst are the well-developed subterranean streams. The latest studies show that there are 2,763 subterranean streams. But, only 10% of total subterranean streams are sustainably exploited at present. Karst groundwater has been captured for use in four primary ways, depending on local hydrogeology, geology, landforms and ecological environment: (1)damming of karst conduits to create underground or surface-underground reservoirs; (2)tank storage of high-elevation epikarst springs in peak-cluster areas where water shortages are severe; (3)pumping of vadose and phreatic zone groundwater in peak-forest areas; and (4) installation of grout curtains in fissured karst aquifers to concentrate groundwater discharge and head to fill water supply tanks. These groundwater capture systems have greatly improved the water-supply capacities and effectively solved the water-shortage troubles of 15million people in the mountainous karst areas in south China.