Shuangyashan City, located in the northeast of China, is the largest coalfield in Heilongjiang Province and one of the ten largest coalfields in China. In this study, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, environmental hydrogeology and other comprehensive research methods were used to find out the groundwater environment of Shuangyashan City based on the specific conditions of Shuangyashan City and the previous achievements of water resources development and utilization evaluation. The groundwater resources in the planning area were calculated in detail by equilibrium method, and the internationally advanced three-dimensional visualization underground was used. Water simulation software Visual Modflow is used to simulate groundwater regime, establish groundwater flow field prediction model by numerical method, and evaluate groundwater vulnerability in planning area by DRASTIC index system method. The results show that the groundwater resources in Shuangyashan City are 13504.24m3/a, the groundwater quality is good as a whole, the vulnerability of groundwater is high as a whole, and groundwater is vulnerable to pollution. Finally, the groundwater protection area and groundwater protection target are determined synthetically. The overall scheme of groundwater protection in Shuangyashan City is put forward, and the engineering and non-engineering measures of groundwater protection are proposed.