Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (WFD) defines in Article 4 "environmental objectives" for surface waters, groundwater and protected areas. In order to achieve the "environmental objectives" for groundwater (GW) (Article 4.1b), the WFD requires the adoption of specific measures to prevent and limit GW pollution. The basis for many of the WFD risk references is the concept that underlies the environmental impact of human activities, especially those that threaten our ability to meet the WFD's objectives (5 main objectives for GW).
In accordance with the WFD, Groundwater Directive (2006/118/EC) and CIS Guidance Documents no. 26 (Guidance on risk assessment and the use of conceptual models for groundwater), the risk analysis of not achieving good chemical status was developed and performed for each of the pre-quaternary and quaternary groundwater body (GWB) in the SR considering conceptual model. Risk assessment includes the following factors:
1. previous risk and chemical status assessment in the previous cycle,
2. trends in pollutant concentrations in monitoring point,
3. GW vulnerability,
4. significant point sources of pollution (environmental burdens),
5. use of plant protection products (pesticide active substances) and fertilizers on agricultural land,
6. sewer system for settlements,
7. the extent and degree of protection in safeguard zones and drinking water protected areas, including protected terrestrial ecosystems,
8. predicted climate, population and land use changes,
9. GW interaction with surface waters (aquatic ecosystems).
Based on the detailed risk assessment, the 6 quaternary GWBs and 1 pre-quaternary GWB (from total of 75 GWBs) were classified “in risk” of not achieving environmental objectives in the GWB by 2021. GW vulnerability was identified as an important risk factor. This factor is less time-changing and has little to do with human activity. From the view of anthropogenic impacts, the environmental burdens and the use of pesticides were assessed as significant factors. Less important factor was fertilization. The re-evaluation of all factors (except of factors 3 and 8) within developed risk assessment methodology is being performed for assessment of not achieving environmental objectives in the GWB by 2027. These results of the risk analysis are taken into consideration when making proposals for program of measures.